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Art is a term that describes a diverse range of human activities and the products of those activities, but is most often understood to refer to painting, film, photography, sculpture, and other visual media. Music, theatre, dance, literature, and interactive media are included in a broader definition of art or the arts.

Arts Aesthetics Visual arts
Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech is the political right to communicate one's opinions and ideas via speech. The term freedom of expression is sometimes used synonymously, but includes any act of seeking, receiving and imparting information or ideas, regardless of the medium used. In practice, the right to freedom of speech is not absolute in any country and the right is commonly subject to limitations, as with libel, slander, obscenity and incitement to commit a crime.

Articles with inconsistent citation formats Freedom of expression Human rights by issue Freedom of speech Censorship

Gender is a range of characteristics of femininity, masculinity and others described as third gender. Depending on the context, the describing characteristics vary from sex to social roles to gender identity. The academic interdisciplinary field gender studies focuses on gender. Sexologist John Money introduced the terminological distinction between biological sex and gender as a role in 1955.

Gender Biology
Freedom of religion

Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance; the concept is generally recognized also to include the freedom to change religion or not to follow any religion.

Freedom of religion Religion-related legal issues
Human sexuality

Human sexuality is the capacity to have erotic experiences and responses. Human sexuality can also refer to the way someone is sexually attracted to another person, whether it is to the opposite sex, to the same sex, to either sex, to all gender identities, or not being attracted to anyone in a sexual manner. Human sexuality impacts cultural, political, legal, and philosophical aspects of life. It can refer to issues of morality, ethics, theology, spirituality, or religion.

Transcription (genetics)

Transcription is the process of creating a complementary RNA copy of a sequence of DNA. Both RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language that can be converted back and forth from DNA to RNA by the action of the correct enzymes. During transcription, a DNA sequence is read by an RNA polymerase, which produces a complementary, antiparallel RNA strand.

Molecular biology Gene expression
English law

English law is the legal system of England and Wales, and is the basis of common law legal systems used in most Commonwealth countries and the United States except Louisiana (as opposed to civil law or pluralist systems in use in other countries). It was exported to Commonwealth countries while the British Empire was established and maintained, and it forms the basis of the jurisprudence of most of those countries.

English law Legal codes
Gene expression

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product. These products are often proteins, but in non-protein coding genes such as ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA) or small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes, the product is a functional RNA. The process of gene expression is used by all known life - eukaryotes, prokaryotes, possibly induced by viruses - to generate the macromolecular machinery for life.

Molecular biology Gene expression

Mediumship is defined as the practice of certain people—known as mediums—to mediate communication between spirits of the dead and other human beings. While no evidence has been accepted by the wider scientific community in support of the view that there has been communication between the living and the dead, some parapsychologists say that some of their research suggests that such communication may have taken place.

Spiritualism Parapsychology Channelling Spiritual mediums New Age practices

Heredity is the passing of traits to offspring (from its parent or ancestors). This is the process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to the characteristics of its parent cell or organism. Through heredity, variations exhibited by individuals can accumulate and cause some species to evolve. The study of heredity in biology is called genetics, which includes the field of epigenetics.


An idiom (Latin: idioma, "special property", f. Greek: ἰδίωμα – idiōma, "special feature, special phrasing", f. Greek: ἴδιος – idios, "one’s own") is an expression, word, or phrase that has a figurative meaning that is comprehended in regard to a common use of that expression that is separate from the literal meaning or definition of the words of which it is made. There are estimated to be at least 25,000 idiomatic expressions in the English language.

Idioms Lexical units
Enzyme inhibitor

An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to enzymes and decreases their activity. Since blocking an enzyme's activity can kill a pathogen or correct a metabolic imbalance, many drugs are enzyme inhibitors. They are also used as herbicides and pesticides. Not all molecules that bind to enzymes are inhibitors; enzyme activators bind to enzymes and increase their enzymatic activity, while enzyme substrates bind and are converted to products in the normal catalytic cycle of the enzyme.

Metabolism Enzyme inhibitors Medicinal chemistry Enzymes
Political freedom

Political freedom (also known as political autonomy or political agency) is a central philosophy in Western history and political thought, and one of the most important (real or ideal) features of democratic societies. It has been described as a relationship free of oppression or coercion; the absence of disabling conditions for an individual and the fulfillment of enabling conditions; or the absence of lived conditions of compulsion, e.g. economic compulsion, in a society.

Social concepts Political concepts Civil rights and liberties
Consensus decision-making

Consensus decision-making is a group decision making process that seeks the consent, not necessarily the agreement of participants and the resolution of objections. Consensus is defined by Merriam-Webster as, first, general agreement, and second, group solidarity of belief or sentiment. It has its origin in a Latin word meaning literally feel together. It is used to describe both the decision and the process of reaching a decision.

Core issues in ethics Anarchist theory Deliberative methods Meetings Working groups Community organizing Decision theory Evaluation methods Group processes

Creativity refers to the phenomenon whereby a person creates something new (a product, solution, artwork, literary work, joke, etc. ) that has some kind of value. What counts as "new" may be in reference to the individual creator, or to the society or domain within which the novelty occurs. What counts as "valuable" is similarly defined in a variety of ways.

Aptitude Educational psychology Concepts in aesthetics Problem solving Creativity Cognition Positive psychology
Gender identity

A gender identity is one's private sense of one's gender. There are many variations on gender, not just woman and man as described by the gender binary, these include (among others) genderqueer, and third gender. All societies have a set of gender categories that can serve as the basis of the formation of a social identity in relation to other members of society. In most societies, there is a basic division between gender attributes assigned to males and females.

Gender Identity Gender studies Self
Writing system

]] Writing systems History Grapheme List of writing systems Types Featural alphabet Alphabet Abjad Abugida Syllabary LogographyShorthand Related topics Pictogram Ideogram A writing system is a symbolic system used to represent elements or statements expressible in language.

Writing systems Typography Writing

Dualism (from the Latin word duo meaning "two") denotes a state of two parts. The term 'dualism' was originally coined to denote co-eternal binary opposition, a meaning that is preserved in metaphysical and philosophical duality discourse but has been diluted in general or common usages. Dualism can refer to moral dualism, (e.g. the conflict between good and evil), mind-body or mind-matter dualism or physical dualism (e.g. the Chinese Yin and Yang).

Dualism Metaphysical theories Mind–body problem 2 (number)

Geomorphology is the scientific study of landforms and the processes that shape them. Geomorphologists seek to understand why landscapes look the way they do, to understand landform history and dynamics, and to predict future changes through a combination of field observations, physical experiments, and numerical modeling.

Physical geography Greek loanwords Earth sciences Geomorphology Landscape
Dynamics (music)

In music, dynamics normally refers to the volume of a sound or note, but can also refer to every aspect of the execution of a given piece, either stylistic (staccato, legato etc. ) or functional (velocity). The term is also applied to the written or printed musical notation used to indicate dynamics. Dynamics are relative and do not indicate specific volume levels.

Aspects of music Musical terminology Musical notation
Formal language

In mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language is a set of strings of symbols. The alphabet of a formal language is the set of symbols, letters, or tokens from which the strings of the language may be formed; frequently it is required to be finite. The strings formed from this alphabet are called words, and the words that belong to a particular formal language are sometimes called well-formed words or well-formed formulas.

Theoretical computer science Combinatorics on words Formal languages

A colloquialism is a word, phrase, or paralanguage that is employed in conversational or informal language but not in formal speech or formal writing. Dictionaries often display colloquial words and phrases with the abbreviation colloq. as an identifier. Colloquialisms are sometimes referred to collectively as "colloquial language".

Idioms Article Feedback 5 Linguistics

p53 (also known as protein 53 or tumor protein 53), is a tumor suppressor protein that in humans is encoded by the TP53 gene. p53 is crucial in multicellular organisms, where it regulates the cell cycle and, thus, functions as a tumor suppressor that is involved in preventing cancer. As such, p53 has been described as "the guardian of the genome" because of its role in conserving stability by preventing genome mutation.

Transcription factors Proteins Tumor suppressor genes Programmed cell death Genes mutated in mice Apoptosis
Regular expression

In computing, a regular expression provides a concise and flexible means to "match" (specify and recognize) strings of text, such as particular characters, words, or patterns of characters. Common abbreviations for "regular expression" include regex and regexp. The concept of regular expressions was first popularized by utilities provided by Unix distributions, in particular the editor ed and the filter grep.

Automata theory Formal languages Programming constructs Regular expressions Pattern matching
Convention (norm)

A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms or criteria, often taking the form of a custom. Certain types of rules or customs may become law and regulatory legislation may be introduced to formalize or enforce the convention (for example, laws that define on which side of the road vehicles must be driven).

Social concepts Sociological terms
Free love

The term free love has been used to describe a social movement that rejects marriage, which is seen as a form of social bondage. The Free Love movement’s initial goal was to separate the state from sexual matters such as marriage, birth control, and adultery. It claimed that such issues were the concern of the people involved, and no one else.

Hippie movement Sexual revolution Love Free love
Lambda calculus

The lambda calculus (also written as λ-calculus) is a formal system in mathematical logic for expressing computation by way of variable binding and substitution. It was first formulated by Alonzo Church as a way to formalize mathematics through the notion of functions, in contrast to the field of set theory. Although not very successful in that respect, the lambda calculus found early successes in the area of computability theory, such as a negative answer to Hilbert's Entscheidungsproblem.

Models of computation Articles with example code Computability theory Formal methods Lambda calculus Theoretical computer science 1936 in computer science American inventions
Sentence (linguistics)

In the field of linguistics, a sentence is an expression in natural language. It is often defined as a grammatical unit consisting of one or more words that bear minimal syntactic relation to the words that precede or follow it. A sentence can include words grouped meaningfully to express a statement, question, exclamation, request, command or suggestion. A sentence can also be defined in orthographic terms alone, i.e. , as anything which is contained between a capital letter and a full stop.

Syntactic entities Statements Semantic units
Columbia College Chicago

Columbia College Chicago is one of the largest art colleges in the United States with nearly 12,000 students pursuing degrees within 120 undergraduate and graduate programs. Founded in 1890, the school is located in the South Loop of Chicago.

Educational institutions established in 1890 Council of Independent Colleges Columbia College Chicago Film schools in the United States Vocational education National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities members Universities and colleges in Chicago, Illinois Art schools in Illinois North Central Association of Colleges and Schools

In everyday speech, a phrase may refer to any group of words. In linguistics, a phrase is a group of words (or sometimes a single word) that form a constituent and so function as a single unit in the syntax of a sentence. A phrase is lower on the grammatical hierarchy than a clause.

Phrases Syntactic categories
Regulation of gene expression

Gene modulation redirects here. For information on therapeutic regulation of gene expression, see therapeutic gene modulation. For vocabulary, see Glossary of gene expression terms Regulation of gene expression (or gene regulation) includes the processes that cells and viruses use to regulate the way that the information in genes is turned into gene products. Although a functional gene product can be an RNA, the majority of known mechanisms regulate protein coding genes.

Posttranslational modification RNA DNA Gene expression
Rational function

In mathematics, a rational function is any function which can be written as the ratio of two polynomial functions. Neither the coefficients of the polynomials nor the values taken by the function are necessarily rational numbers.

Algebraic varieties Morphisms of schemes Meromorphic functions

Neoteny, also called juvenilization, is one of the two ways by which pedomorphism can arise. Pedomorphism is the retention by adults of traits previously seen only in juveniles, and is a subject studied in the field of developmental biology. In neoteny, the physiological development of an animal or organism is slowed or delayed. In contrast, in progenesis, sexual development occurs faster. Both processes result in pedomorphism.

Developmental biology Evolutionary biology
DNA microarray

A DNA microarray (also commonly known as gene chip, DNA chip, or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface. Scientists use DNA microarrays to measure the expression levels of large numbers of genes simultaneously or to genotype multiple regions of a genome. Each DNA spot contains picomoles of a specific DNA sequence, known as probes (or reporters).

Microarrays Gene expression Molecular biology techniques Bioinformatics DNA Microtechnology Articles containing video clips Glass coating and surface modification
Parliamentary privilege

Parliamentary privilege (also absolute privilege) is a legal immunity enjoyed by members of certain legislatures, in which legislators are granted protection against civil or criminal liability for actions done or statements made related to one's duties as a legislator. It is common in countries whose constitutions are based on the Westminster system. A similar mechanism is known as parliamentary immunity.

Westminster system Government in Canada Politics of the United Kingdom Statutory law
Southern American English

Southern American English is a group of dialects of the English language spoken throughout the Southern region of the United States, from the southern extremities of Maryland, as well as most of West Virginia and Kentucky to the Gulf Coast, and from the Atlantic coast to most of Texas and Oklahoma. The Southern dialects make up the largest accent group in the United States. Southern American English can be divided into several regional sub-dialects.

Vowel shifts Culture of the Southern United States American English
Freedom of thought

Freedom of thought (also called the freedom of conscience or ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, independent of others' viewpoints. It is different from and not to be confused with the concept of freedom of speech or expression.

Censorship Human rights by issue Political correctness

Bathymetry is the study of underwater depth of lake or ocean floors. In other words, bathymetry is the underwater equivalent to hypsometry or topography. The name comes from Greek βαθύς (bathus), "deep", and μέτρον (metron), "measure".

Cartography Oceanography Topography techniques and subfields Topography Greek loanwords Geomorphology
Sui generis

Sui generis is a Latin expression, literally meaning of its own kind/genus or unique in its characteristics. The expression is often used in analytic philosophy to indicate an idea, an entity, or a reality which cannot be included in a wider concept.

Latin legal terms
Coup de grâce

Apostolic Age

The Apostolic Age of the history of Christianity is traditionally the period of the Twelve Apostles, dating from the Crucifixion of Jesus (c. 30-33) and the Great Commission in Jerusalem until the death of John the Apostle (c. 115) in Anatolia. The Apostles are said to have dispersed from Jerusalem and founded the Apostolic Sees.

History of Christianity Ancient Christianity Christian terms New Testament Early Christianity and Judaism 1st-century Christianity
Facial expression

A facial expression is one or more motions or positions of the muscles in the skin. These movements convey the emotional state of the individual to observers. Facial expressions are a form of nonverbal communication. They are a primary means of conveying social information among humans, but also occur in most other mammals and some other animal species. Humans can adopt a facial expression to read as a voluntary action.

Facial expressions Anatomical simulation Emotion

Self-concept (also called self-construction, self-identity or self-perspective) is a multi-dimensional construct that refers to an individual's perception of "self" in relation to any number of characteristics, such as academics (and nonacademics), gender roles and sexuality, racial identity, and many others. Each of these characteristics is a research domain (i.e.

Conceptions of self Educational psychology
List of Latin phrases

This page lists direct English translations of common Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. Some of the phrases are themselves translations of Greek phrases, as Greek rhetoric and literature were highly regarded in ancient Rome when Latin rhetoric and literature were still maturing. The Latin letter i can be used as either a vowel or a consonant.

Lists of phrases Lists of lists Latin words and phrases
Nonverbal communication

Nonverbal communication is usually understood as the process of communication through sending and receiving wordless messages between people. Messages can be communicated through gestures and touch, by body language or posture, by facial expression and eye contact. Nonverbal messages could also be communicated through material exponential; meaning, objects or artifacts (such as clothing, hairstyles or architecture).

Nonverbal communication
Closed-form expression

In mathematics, an expression is said to be a closed-form expression if it can be expressed analytically in terms of a finite number of certain "well-known" functions. Typically, these well-known functions are defined to be elementary functions—constants, one variable x, elementary operations of arithmetic (+ − × ÷), nth roots, exponent and logarithm (which thus also include trigonometric functions and inverse trigonometric functions).

Special functions Algebra

Scouse is an accent and dialect of English found primarily in the Metropolitan county of Merseyside, and closely associated with the city of Liverpool and the adjoining urban areas such as the boroughs of south Sefton, Knowsley and the Wirral. The accent is known to be as far reaching as Flintshire in Wales, and Runcorn and Skelmersdale in Cheshire and Lancashire respectively.

English language in England Liverpool Languages of the United Kingdom Regional nicknames
Conditional (programming)

In computer science, conditional statements, conditional expressions and conditional constructs are features of a programming language which perform different computations or actions depending on whether a programmer-specified boolean condition evaluates to true or false. Apart from the case of branch predication, this is always achieved by selectively altering the control flow based on some condition.

Articles with example C code Articles with example Haskell code Articles with example pseudocode Articles with example Pascal code Conditional constructs
Asymptotic analysis

In mathematical analysis, asymptotic analysis is a method of describing limiting behavior. The methodology has applications across science. Examples are in computer science in the analysis of algorithms, considering the performance of algorithms when applied to very large input datasets. the behavior of physical systems when they are very large. in accident analysis when identifying the causation of crash through count modeling with large number of crash counts in a given time and space.

Asymptotic analysis
Interrogative word

In linguistics, an interrogative word or question word is a function word used to ask a question, such as where or what. They are sometimes called wh-words, because in English most of them start with wh-. They may be used in both direct questions (Where is he going?) and in indirect questions (I wonder where he is going).

Interrogative words and phrases

XPath, the XML Path Language, is a query language for selecting nodes from an XML document. In addition, XPath may be used to compute values from the content of an XML document. XPath was defined by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) .

Query languages XML XML data access
Call for bids

A call for bids, call for tenders, invitation to tender (ITT), or invitation of tenders (often called tender for short) is a special procedure for generating competing offers from different bidders looking to obtain an award of business activity in works, supply, or service contracts. They are usually preceded by a pre-qualification questionnaire (PQQ).

Auctioneering Procurement Auctions and trading

Penetrance in genetics is the proportion of individuals carrying a particular variant of a gene that also express an associated trait. In medical genetics, the penetrance of a disease-causing mutation is the proportion of individuals with the mutation who exhibit clinical symptoms. For example, if a mutation in the gene responsible for a particular autosomal dominant disorder has 95% penetrance, then 95% of those with the mutation will develop the disease, while 5% will not.

Behavioural genetics

Behavioural genetics is the field of study that examines the role of genetics in animal behaviour. Often associated with the "nature versus nurture" debate, behavioural genetics is highly interdisciplinary, involving contributions from biology, genetics, ethology, psychology, and statistics. Behavioural geneticists study the inheritance of behavioural traits. In humans, this information is often gathered through the use of the twin study or adoption study.

Genetics Neuroscience Behavioural sciences
Genomic imprinting

Genomic imprinting is a genetic phenomenon by which certain genes are expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. It is an inheritance process independent of the classical Mendelian inheritance. Imprinted alleles are silenced such that the genes are either expressed only from the non-imprinted allele inherited from the mother, or in other instances from the non-imprinted allele inherited from the father.

Epigenetics Gene expression Molecular genetics
Section Two of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms

Section 2 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is the section of the Constitution of Canada that lists what the Charter calls "fundamental freedoms" theoretically applying to everyone in Canada, regardless of whether they are a Canadian citizen, or an individual or corporation. These freedoms can be held against actions of all levels of government and are enforceable by the courts.

Freedom of assembly Religion in Canada Freedom of expression Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
Nth root

In mathematics, the nth root of a number x is a number r which, when raised to the power of n, equals x where n is the degree of the root. A root of degree 2 is called a square root and a root of degree 3, a cube root. Roots of higher degree are referred to using ordinal numbers, as in fourth root, twentieth root, etc. For example: 2 is a square root of 4, since 2 = 4. −2 is also a square root of 4, since (−2) = 4. A real number or complex number has n roots of degree n.

Elementary algebra
Parse tree

A concrete syntax tree or parse tree or parsing tree is an ordered, rooted tree that represents the syntactic structure of a string according to some formal grammar. Parse trees are usually constructed according to one of two competing relations, either in terms of the constituency relation of constituency grammars or in terms of the dependency relation of dependency grammars.

Trees (data structures) Syntax
Operator (programming)

Programming languages typically support a set of operators: operations which differ in the calling of syntax and/or the argument passing mode from the language's functions. Common examples that differ by syntax are mathematical arithmetic operations, e.g. ">" for "greater than", with names often outside the language's set of identifiers for functions, and called with a syntax different from the language's syntax for calling functions.

Operators (programming) Programming constructs

In mathematics, in the context of polynomials, the word monomial can have one of two different meanings: The first is a product of powers of variables, or formally any value obtained by finitely many multiplications of a variable. If only a single variable is considered, this means that any monomial is either 1 or a power of, with a positive integer.

Homogeneous polynomials Algebra
Expression (computer science)

An expression in a programming language is a combination of explicit values, constants, variables, operators, and functions that are interpreted according to the particular rules of precedence and of association for a particular programming language, which computes and then produces (returns, in a stateful environment) another value. This process, like for mathematical expressions, is called evaluation. The value can be of various types, such as numerical, string, and logical.

Evaluation Programming language concepts

In spoken language analysis an utterance is a smallest unit of speech. It is generally but not always bounded by silence. It can be represented and delineated in written language in many ways. Note that in such areas of research utterances do not exist in written language, only their representations do. In other fields it is medium-neutral and refers to any use of language in context (in contrast with the abstract form sentence).

Philosophy of language Sociolinguistics Discourse analysis Oral communication
Recapitulation theory

The theory of recapitulation, also called the biogenetic law or embryological parallelism—and often expressed as "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny"—is a disproven biological hypothesis that in developing from embryo to adult, animals go through stages resembling or representing successive stages in the evolution of their remote ancestors.

History of evolutionary biology Obsolete scientific theories Biology theories
Prehistoric art

In the history of art, prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate, prehistorical cultures beginning somewhere in very late geological history, and generally continuing until that culture either develops writing or other methods of record-keeping, or makes significant contact with another culture that has, and that makes some record of major historical events. At this point ancient art begins, for the older literate cultures.

Prehistoric art

Chengyu are a type of traditional Chinese idiomatic expressions, most of which consist of four characters. Chengyu were widely used in Classical Chinese and are still common in vernacular Chinese writing and in the spoken language today. According to the most stringent definition, there are about 5,000 chengyu in the Chinese language, though some dictionaries list over 20,000. They are often referred to as Chinese idioms or four-character idioms; however, they are not the only idioms in Chinese.

Chinese words and phrases Japanese vocabulary Chinese proverbs
Assignment (computer science)

In computer programming, an assignment statement sets or re-sets the value stored in the storage location(s) denoted by a variable name. In most imperative computer programming languages, assignment statements are one of the basic statements. Common notations for the assignment operator are and . Assignment statements typically allow for the same variable to contain different values at different times during program execution.

Operators (programming) Programming language concepts

The proteome is the entire set of proteins expressed by a genome, cell, tissue or organism. More specifically, it is the set of expressed proteins in a given type of cells or an organism at a given time under defined conditions. The term is a portmanteau of proteins and genome. The term has been applied to several different types of biological systems.

Proteins Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics Omics
Freedom of speech in the United States

Freedom of speech in the United States is protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution and by many state constitutions and state and federal laws. The freedom is not absolute; the Supreme Court of the United States has recognized several categories of speech that are excluded from the freedom of speech, and it has recognized that governments may enact reasonable time, place, or manner restrictions on speech.

History of civil rights in the United States First Amendment to the United States Constitution Freedom of speech in the United States
Expression (mathematics)

In mathematics, an expression is a finite combination of symbols that is well-formed according to rules that depend on the context. Symbols can designate numbers, variables, operations, functions, and other mathematical symbols, as well as punctuation, symbols of grouping, and other syntactic symbols.

Evaluation Logical expressions Abstract algebra
Sexual slang

Sexual slang is a set of linguistic terms and phrases used to refer to sexual organs, processes, and activities; they are generally considered colloquial rather than formal or medical, and some may be seen as impolite or improper. Related to sexual slang is slang related to defecation and flatulence. References to the anal tract are often given a sexual connotation in the context of anal sex (in particular, in a context of male homosexuality).

Sexual slang Profanity Euphemisms
Mexican art

Mexican art consists of the various visual arts which developed over the geographical area now known as Mexico. The development of these arts roughly follows the history of Mexico, divided into the Mesoamerican era, the colonial period, with the period after Mexican War of Independence further subdivided.

Latin American art Art by nationality Mexican art Mexican culture Western art
KISS principle

KISS is an acronym for the design principle articulated by Kelly Johnson, Keep it simple, Stupid!. Variations include "keep it short and simple", "keep it simple sir", "keep it simple or be stupid", "keep it simple and stupid", "keep it simple and straightforward" or "keep it simple and sincere. " The KISS principle states that most systems work best if they are kept simple rather than made complex, therefore simplicity should be a key goal in design and unnecessary complexity should be avoided.

Software development philosophies Adages Simple living Design Programming principles

Not to be confused with the concept of "popular illegalisms" created by Michel Foucault in Discipline and Punish. Illegalism is an anarchist philosophy that developed primarily in France, Italy, Belgium, and Switzerland during the early 1900s as an outgrowth of individualist anarchism. The illegalists openly embraced criminality as a lifestyle.

Anarchism in France Illegalism Individualist anarchism Crime Anarchist movements
Bridgeman Art Library v. Corel Corp.

Bridgeman Art Library v. Corel Corp. , 36 F. Supp. 2d 191 (S.D.N.Y. 1999), was a decision by the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, which ruled that exact photographic copies of public domain images could not be protected by copyright in the United States because the copies lack originality. Even if accurate reproductions require a great deal of skill, experience and effort, the key element for copyrightability under U.S.

United States copyright case law United States district court cases 1999 in United States case law
Anonymous function

In programming language theory, an anonymous function (also function constant or function literal) is a function defined, and possibly called, without being bound to an identifier. Anonymous functions are convenient to pass as an argument to a higher-order function and are ubiquitous in languages with first-class functions such as Haskell. Anonymous functions are a form of nested function, in that they allow access to the variable in the scope of the containing function.

Subroutines Data types Functional programming Lambda calculus

In computing, s-expressions, sexprs or sexps (for "symbolic expression") are a notation for nested list data, invented for and popularized by the programming language Lisp, which uses them for source code as well as data. In the usual parenthesized syntax of Lisp, an s-expression is classically defined inductively as an atom, or an expression of the form where x and y are s-expressions.

Lisp programming language Data serialization formats

In corpus linguistics, collocation defines a sequence of words or terms that co-occur more often than would be expected by chance. In phraseology, collocation is a sub-type of phraseme. An example of a phraseological collocationis the expression strong tea. While the same meaning could be conveyed by the roughly equivalent *powerful tea, this expression is considered incorrect by English speakers.

Corpus linguistics Lexical units Language education
Sign (linguistics)

There are many models of the linguistic sign. A classic model is the one by the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure. According to him, language is made up of signs and every sign has two sides (like a coin or a sheet of paper, both sides of which are inseparable): the signifier (French signifiant), the "shape" of a word, its phonic component, i.e. the sequence of graphemes, e.g. , --, or phonemes, e.g.

International Freedom of Expression Exchange

The International Freedom of Expression eXchange (IFEX), founded in 1992, is a global network of around 90 non-governmental organisations that promotes and defends the right to freedom of expression. IFEX exchanges information online and mobilises action on issues such as press freedom, Internet censorship, freedom of information legislation, criminal defamation and insult laws, media concentration and attacks on journalists, writers, human rights defenders and Internet users.

Freedom of expression organizations International nongovernmental organizations International human rights organizations Organizations established in 1992 International journalism organizations Freedom of speech International non-profit organizations
Protein expression (biotechnology)

Protein expression is a subcomponent of gene expression. It consists of the stages after DNA has been transcribed to messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA is then translated into polypeptide chains, which are ultimately folded into proteins. Protein expression is commonly used by proteomics researchers to denote the measurement of the presence and abundance of one or more proteins in a particular cell or tissue.

Gene expression
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals

The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals is a book by Charles Darwin, published in 1872, concerning genetically determined aspects of behaviour. It was published thirteen years after On The Origin of Species and is, alongside his 1871 book The Descent of Man, Darwin's main consideration of human origins. Most unusually, Darwin sought out the opinions of some eminent psychiatrists in the preparation of the book and it is generally regarded as Darwin's main contribution to psychology.

History of psychiatry Emotion Books about evolution Neuroscience History of psychology 1872 books History of mental health in the United Kingdom Books by Charles Darwin

In linguistics and in philosophy of language, an indexical behavior or utterance points to (or indicates) some state of affairs. For example, I refers to whoever is speaking; now refers to the time at which that word is uttered; and here refers to the place of utterance.


In linguistics, deixis refers to the phenomenon wherein understanding the meaning of certain words and phrases in an utterance requires contextual information. Words are deictic if their semantic meaning is fixed but their denotational meaning varies depending on time and/or place. Words or phrases that require contextual information to convey any meaning – for example, English pronouns – are deictic.

Propositional formula

In propositional logic, a propositional formula is a type of syntactic formula which is well formed and has a truth value. If the values of all variables in a propositional formula are given, it determines a unique truth value. A propositional formula may also be called a propositional expression, a sentence, or a sentential formula.

Syntax (logic) Logical expressions Propositions Boolean algebra Statements Propositional calculus
Reporter gene

In molecular biology, a reporter gene (often simply reporter) is a gene that researchers attach to a regulatory sequence of another gene of interest in bacteria, cell culture, animals or plants. Certain genes are chosen as reporters because the characteristics they confer on organisms expressing them are easily identified and measured, or because they are selectable markers.

Genetics Molecular biology
Censorship in France

France has a long history of governmental censorship, particularly in the 16th to 18th centuries, but today freedom of press is guaranteed by the French Constitution and instances of governmental censorship are relatively limited and isolated. There was a strong governmental control over radio and television in the 1950-70s.

Censorship in France
Gender variance

Gender variance, or gender nonconformity, is behaviour or gender expression that does not conform to dominant gender norms of male and female. People who exhibit gender variance may be called gender variant, gender non-conforming, or gender atypical.

Gender studies Androgyny Transgender Genderqueer
Function overloading

Function overloading or method overloading is a feature found in various programming languages such as Ada, C++, C#, D, Java, that allows creating several methods with the same name which differ from each other in the type of the input and the output of the function. It is simply defined as the ability of one function to perform different tasks. For example, doTask and doTask(object O) are overloaded methods.

Method (computer science)
Music of Bollywood

Bollywood songs, more formally known as Hindi film songs, or filmi songs are songs featured in Bollywood films. Derided in Western film circles for the song-and-dance routine, Bollywood songs, along with dance, are a characteristic motif of Hindi cinema which gives it enduring popular appeal, cultural value and context. Hindi film songs form a predominant component of Indian pop music, and derives its inspiration from both classical and modern sources.

Indian songs Hindi songs Bollywood Filmi
Christian Kabbalah

The Renaissance saw the birth of Christian Kabbalah/Cabbalah (From the Hebrew קַבָּלָה "reception", often transliterated with a 'C' to distinguish it from Jewish Kabbalah and Hermetic Qabbalah), also spelled Cabbala/Cabala. Interest grew among some Christian scholars in what they saw to be the mystical aspects of Judaic Kabbalah, which was compatible with Christian mystical thought. Although somewhat obscure, the tradition of Christian Kabbalah or Catholic Kabbalah still persists today.

Christian Kabbalah Kabbalah Christian mysticism
Emotional expression

Emotional expressions in psychology are observable verbal and nonverbal behaviors that communicate an internal emotional or affective state. Examples of emotional expression are facial movements such as smiling or scowling, or behaviors like crying or laughing. Emotional expressions can occur with or without self-awareness.

Art game

An art game or arthouse game is a video game that is designed to emphasize art or whose structure is intended to produce some kind of reaction in its audience. Art games typically go out of their way to have a unique, unconventional look, often standing out for aesthetic beauty or complexity in design.

Video game genres Art games

A snowclone is a type of cliché and phrasal template originally defined as "a multi-use, customizable, instantly recognizable, time-worn, quoted or misquoted phrase or sentence that can be used in an entirely open array of different variants". An example of a snowclone is "grey is the new black", a version of the template "X is the new Y". X and Y may be replaced with different words or phrases – for example, "comedy is the new rock 'n' roll".

Neologisms Snowclones Words coined in the 2000s
Gene expression profiling

In the field of molecular biology, gene expression profiling is the measurement of the activity of thousands of genes at once, to create a global picture of cellular function. These profiles can, for example, distinguish between cells that are actively dividing, or show how the cells react to a particular treatment. Many experiments of this sort measure an entire genome simultaneously, that is, every gene present in a particular cell.

Molecular genetics Microarrays
List comprehension

A list comprehension is a syntactic construct available in some programming languages for creating a list based on existing lists. It follows the form of the mathematical set-builder notation (set comprehension) as distinct from the use of map and filter functions.

Articles with example Haskell code Articles with example code Programming constructs Articles with example Racket code Articles with example Python code
Decimal representation

This article gives a mathematical definition. For a more accessible article see Decimal. A decimal representation of a non-negative real number r is an expression of the form of a series, traditionally written as a sum where a0 is a nonnegative integer, and a1, a2, … are integers satisfying 0 ≤ ai ≤ 9, called the digits of the decimal representation. The sequence of digits specified may be finite, in which case any further digits ai are assumed to be 0.

Mathematical notation Articles containing proofs

Biosemiotics (from the Greek bios meaning "life" and semeion meaning "sign") is a growing field that studies the production, action and, interpretation of signs and codes in the biological realm. Biosemiotics attempts to integrate the findings of scientific biology and semiotics, representing a paradigmatic shift in the occidental scientific view of life, demonstrating that semiosis (sign process, including meaning and interpretation) is its immanent and intrinsic feature.

Semiotics Zoosemiotics
Facial nerve paralysis

Facial nerve paralysis is a common problem that involves the paralysis of any structures innervated by the facial nerve. The pathway of the facial nerve is long and relatively convoluted, and so there are a number of causes that may result in facial nerve paralysis. The most common is Bell's palsy, an idiopathic disease that may only be diagnosed by exclusion. A thorough medical history and physical examination are the first steps in making a diagnosis.

Peripheral nervous system disorders Otolaryngology
Facial muscles

The facial muscles are a group of striated muscles innervated by the facial nerve that, among other things, control facial expression. These muscles are also called mimetic muscles.

Muscles of the head and neck
Curry College

Curry College is a private liberal arts-based institution in Milton, Massachusetts that started as the School of Elocution in 1879.

Council of Independent Colleges Educational institutions established in 1879 Universities and colleges in Massachusetts National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities members Universities and colleges in Norfolk County, Massachusetts New England Association of Schools and Colleges Association of Independent Colleges and Universities in Massachusetts members
Canadian Journalists for Free Expression

Canadian Journalists for Free Expression is a Canadian non-governmental organization supported by Canadian journalists and advocates of freedom of expression. The purpose of the organization is to defend the rights of journalists and contribute to the development of press freedom throughout the world. CJFE recognizes that these rights are not confined to journalists and strongly supports and defends the broader objective of freedom of expression in Canada and around the world.

Canadian journalism organizations 1981 establishments in Canada Freedom of expression organizations Organizations established in 1981 Charities based in Canada Canadian human rights activists
Brennan Center for Justice

The Brennan Center for Justice at New York University Law School is a public policy and law institute that focuses on issues involving democracy and justice. The Center is "dedicated to strengthening democracy and securing justice, through law, scholarship, education and advocacy. " The organization is currently headed by Michael Waldman, former Director of Speechwriting for President Bill Clinton from 1995–1999.

New York University Civil liberties advocacy groups in the United States Elections in the United States Election and voting-related organizations Non-profit organizations based in New York Organizations established in 1995
F. O. Matthiessen

Francis Otto Matthiessen (February 19, 1902 - April 1, 1950) was an educator, scholar and literary critic influential in the fields of American literature and American studies.

Suicides by jumping from a height LGBT writers from the United States American historians 1950 deaths Harvard University people Historians who committed suicide 1902 births Literary critics who committed suicide Christian socialists American literary critics Historians of the United States
Idea–expression divide


Dysgraphia is a deficiency in the ability to write primarily in terms of handwriting, but also in terms of coherence. It occurs regardless of the ability to read and is not due to intellectual impairment.

Dysgraphia Learning disabilities Alexia (condition) Symptoms and signs: Speech and voice Special education
Parsing expression grammar

In computer science, a parsing expression grammar, or PEG, is a type of analytic formal grammar, i.e. it describes a formal language in terms of a set of rules for recognizing strings in the language. The formalism was introduced by Bryan Ford in 2004 and is closely related to the family of top-down parsing languages introduced in the early 1970s. Syntactically, PEGs also look similar to context-free grammars (CFGs), but they have a different interpretation: the rules of PEGs are ordered.

Parsing algorithms Formal languages
New Interfaces for Musical Expression

New Interfaces for Musical Expression, also known as NIME, is an international conference dedicated to scientific research on the development of new technologies for musical expression and artistic performance. Researchers and musicians from all over the world gather to share their knowledge and late-breaking work on new musical interface design.

Music events
Expression pedal

An expression pedal is an important control found on many organs and synthesizers, as well as in the pedal steel guitar, that allows the volume of the sound to be manipulated. Because the source of power with a pipe organ and electronic organs is not generated by the organist, the volume of these instruments has no relationship with how hard its keys or pedals are struck; i.e. , the organ produces the same volume whether the key or pedal is depressed gently or firmly.

Pipe organ components
List of French words and phrases used by English speakers

Here are some examples of French words and phrases used by English speakers. English contains many words of French origin, such as art, competition, force, machine, police, publicity, role, routine, table, and many other Anglicized French words. These are pronounced according to English rules of phonology, rather than French.

Lists of English words of foreign origin Lists of phrases French loanwords

Expressivity is a term used in genetics to refer to variations in a phenotype among individuals carrying a particular genotype. The term can be used to characterize qualitatively or quantitatively the extent of phenotypic variation given a particular genotype. The term is analogous to the severity of a condition in clinical medicine. For example, the amount of blood ejected from the pumping heart with each contraction can be quantified by echocardiography and is called the ejection fraction.

Population genetics
Gene knockdown

Gene knockdown refers to techniques by which the expression of one or more of an organism's genes is reduced, either through genetic modification (a change in the DNA of one of the organism's chromosomes) or by treatment with a reagent such as a short DNA or RNA oligonucleotide with a sequence complementary to either an mRNA transcript or a gene. If genetic modification of DNA is done, the result is a "knockdown organism".

Genetically modified organisms
Ground expression

Logical expressions Mathematical logic
Holiest sites in Islam

Artistic freedom

Artistic freedom is the extent of freedom of an artist to produce art to his/her own insight. The extent can deviate to customs in a certain school of art, directives of the assigner, etc. Artistic freedom should not be confused to the freedom of art (e.g. Kunstfreiheit in Gemanic countries), where it is a constitutional provision to prevent political censorship. Software patents are often seen as an example of one of these restrictions.

Freedom of expression Visual arts
Fritt Ord (organization)

Fritt Ord (in English The Freedom of Expression Foundation) is a Norwegian foundation, whose self-proclaimed aim is to support freedom of expression and a free press. It was established on 7 June 1974 by Narvesen Kioskkompani's leaders Jens Henrik Nordlie and Finn Skedsmo as well as the lawyer Jens Christian Hauge.

Norwegian culture Freedom of expression Organizations established in 1974 Foundations based in Norway Media companies of Norway 1974 establishments in Norway
Unparliamentary language

In a Westminster system, unparliamentary language is words or phrases that are deemed to be inappropriate for use in the House whilst it is in session. This includes, but is not limited to the suggestion of dishonesty or profanity. The most prohibited case is any suggestion that another member is dishonourable. So, for example, suggesting that another member is lying is forbidden. Exactly what constitutes unparliamentary language is generally left to the discretion of the Speaker of the House.

Westminster system Parliamentary procedure English phrases Euphemisms

Algebraic semantics

Formula calculator

A formula calculator is a software calculator that can perform a calculation in two steps: 1. Enter the calculation by typing it in from the keyboard. 2. Press a single button or key to see the final result. This is unlike button-operated calculators, such as the Windows calculator or the Mac OS X calculator, which require the user to perform one step for each operation, by pressing buttons to calculate all the intermediate values, before the final result is shown.

Mathematical notation Office equipment Calculators
Censorship in Italy

Italy has one of the lowest levels of press freedom in Europe. A 2009 report by Freedom House classified Italy as "partly free", ranking it behind most former communist states of eastern Europe. Censorship is applied in television such as in press for several rationales.

Censorship in Italy
Non-apology apology

A non-apology apology is a statement in the form of an apology but that is in fact not an apology at all. It is common in both politics and public relations. It most commonly entails the speaker saying that he or she is sorry not for a behavior, statement or misdeed, but rather is sorry only because a person who has been aggrieved is requesting the apology, expressing a grievance, or is threatening some form of retribution or retaliation.

Etiquette Political catch phrases Public relations techniques Obfuscation
Mathematical expression

Microsoft Expression Web

Microsoft Expression Web, code-named Quartz, is an HTML editor and general web design software product by Microsoft. It is part of the Expression Studio suite. Expression Web can design and develop web pages using XML, CSS 2.1, ASP. NET or ASP. NET AJAX, XHTML, XSLT, PHP and JavaScript. Expression Web 4 requires . NET Framework 4.0 and Silverlight 4.0 to install and run. Expression Web uses its own standards-based rendering engine which is different from Internet Explorer's Trident engine.

Microsoft Expression products HTML editors

Vegetotherapy is a form of Reichian psychotherapy that involves the physical manifestations of emotions. The basic and founding text of vegetotherapy is Wilhelm Reich's Psychischer Kontakt und vegetative Strömung (1935), later included in the enlarged edition of Reich's Character Analysis (1933, 1949).

Body psychotherapy
Microsoft Expression Studio

Microsoft Expression Studio is a suite of tools for designing and building web and Windows client applications and rich digital media contents.

Microsoft Expression products Microsoft software
Algebraic expression

In mathematics, an algebraic expression is an expression that contains variables and a finite number of algebraic operations. A rational algebraic expression is an algebraic expression that can be written as a quotient of polynomials, such as x + 2x + 4. An irrational algebraic expression is one that is not rational, such as √x + 4.

Elementary algebra
Analytical expression

In mathematics, an analytical expression (or expression in analytical form) is a mathematical expression constructed using well-known operations that lend themselves readily to calculation. As is true for closed-form expressions, the set of well-known functions allowed can vary according to context but always includes the basic arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division), extraction of nth roots, exponentiation, logarithms, and trigonometric functions.

Special functions
Perl Compatible Regular Expressions

Perl Compatible Regular Expressions (PCRE) is a regular expression C library inspired by Perl's external interface, written by Philip Hazel. PCRE's syntax is much more powerful and flexible than either of the POSIX regular expression flavors and many classic regular expression libraries. The name is misleading, because PCRE is Perl-compatible only if you consider a subset of PCRE's settings and a subset of Perl's regular expression facilities.

C libraries Pattern matching Perl Regular expressions

A polyphenic trait is a trait for which multiple, discrete phenotypes can arise from a single genotype as a result of differing environmental conditions.

Evolutionarily significant biological phenomena Biology Polymorphism Subfields and areas of study related to evolutionary biology Population ecology
Transcription (biology)

Medallic art

Art medals are a well-known and highly collected form of small bronze sculpture, and are considered a form of exonumia. Art medals have been produced since the late Renaissance period, and the category was basically invented by Pisanello, who cast them like bronze sculptures, rather than minting them like coins.

Serial analysis of gene expression

Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a technique used by molecular biologists to produce a snapshot of the messenger RNA population in a sample of interest in the form of small tags that correspond to fragments of those transcripts. The original technique was developed by Dr. Victor Velculescu at the Oncology Center of Johns Hopkins University and published in 1995.

Molecular biology
Algebraic fraction

In elementary algebra, an algebraic fraction is the indicated quotient of two algebraic expressions. Two examples of algebraic fractions are and . Algebraic fractions are subject to the same laws as arithmetic fractions.

Elementary algebra Fractions
The whole nine yards

The phrase the whole nine yards means completely, the whole thing, everything, e.g. I was mugged. They took my wallet, my keys, my shoes, – the whole nine yards! The origin of the phrase has been described as, "the most prominent etymological riddle of our time. " The earliest known examples of usage date from the early 1960s.

Numeric epithets English phrases
Catholic–Orthodox Joint Declaration of 1965

Keyboard expression

Keyboard expression often shortened to expression is the ability of a keyboard instrument to respond to the dynamics of the music or change the tone of the sound in response to the way that the performer depresses the keys of the musical keyboard.

Keyboard instruments
Face recognition

Freedom of religion in the United States

In the United States, freedom of religion is a constitutionally guaranteed right provided in the religion clauses of the First Amendment. Freedom of religion is also closely associated with separation of church and state, a concept advocated by Thomas Jefferson.

Freedom of expression in the United States Religion in the United States Freedom of religion by country
Pardon the Expression

Pardon The Expression! is an ITV sitcom made by Granada Television, that was first broadcast from Wednesday 2 June 1965 to Monday 27 June 1966. The sitcom was one of only four spin-offs from the highly popular soap opera Coronation Street. Pardon the Expression itself had a spin-off: Turn out the Lights broadcast in 1967. There wasn't to be another spin-off until the 1980s with The Brothers McGregor, which reused two characters (played by different actors) who appeared in a single episode.

1966 television series endings 1965 television series debuts 1965 in British television ITV sitcoms
Expression vector

An expression vector, otherwise known as an expression construct, is generally a plasmid that is used to introduce a specific gene into a target cell. Once the expression vector is inside the cell, the protein that is encoded by the gene is produced by the cellular-transcription and translation machinery ribosomal complexes.

Molecular biology Biotechnology
Omega-regular language

The ω-regular languages are a class of ω-languages which generalize the definition of regular languages to infinite words. Büchi showed in 1962 that ω-regular languages are precisely the ones definable in a particular monadic second-order logic called S1S.

Formal languages
Political censorship

Political censorship exists when a government attempts to conceal, fake, distort, or falsify information that its citizens receive by suppressing or crowding out political news that the public might receive through news outlets. In the absence of unflattering but objective information, people will be unable to dissent with the government or political party in charge. It is also the suppression of views that are contrary to those of the government in power.

Censorship Political terms

In medicine a heterologous transplant means 'between species' or 'from one species to another'. In cell biology and protein biochemistry, heterologous expression means that a protein is experimentally put into a cell that does not normally make that protein. Heterologous (meaning 'derived from a different organism') refers to the fact that often the transferred protein was initially cloned from or derived from a different cell type or a different species from the recipient.

Transplantation medicine Protein structure
Ex'pression College for Digital Arts

Ex'pression College for Digital Arts is a private, for-profit college located in Emeryville, California, geared toward the entertainment industry and known for its around-the-clock schedule and five week classes. It offers six Bachelors of Applied Science degrees: 1 Animation and Visual Effects, 2) Digital Filmmaking, 3) Game Art & Design, 4) Interactive Audio, 5) Motion Graphic Design and 6) Sound Arts.

Video game universities Universities and colleges in Alameda County, California Emeryville, California Digital media schools For-profit universities and colleges in the United States Educational institutions established in 1998
Microsoft Expression Blend

Microsoft Expression Blend is a user interface design tool developed and sold by Microsoft for creating graphical interfaces for web and desktop applications that blend the features of these two types of applications. It is an interactive, WYSIWYG front-end for designing XAML-based interfaces for Windows Presentation Foundation and Silverlight applications. It is one of the applications in the Microsoft Expression Studio suite.

Microsoft Expression products User interface builders
Leland Powers School

The Leland Powers School, also known as the Leland Powers School of Communication, Leland Powers School of Radio, Theatre, and Television, Leland Powers Theatre School, the Leland Powers School of Expression, Leland Powers School of the Spoken Word, and originally called the Leland Powers School of Elocution, was originally located in the Fenway neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts, and later in Brookline, Massachusetts. It was founded by speaker and author Leland Powers in 1904.

Educational institutions established in 1904 Universities and colleges in Massachusetts Performing arts education in the United States
Ectopic expression

Ectopic expression is the expression of a gene in an abnormal place in an organism. This can be caused by a disease, or it can be artificially produced as a way to help determine what the function of that gene is. Ectopic expression of a gene can be done by introducing a transgene with a modified promoter into the target organism (transient or stable transfection) or by using the Gal4-UAS system. Ectopic expression is used to gain further understanding of the gene's functions.

Gene expression
Gordon Bennett

Freedom of Expression (McLeod book)

Freedom of Expression® is a book about freedom of speech issues with respect to concepts of intellectual property, written by Kembrew McLeod. The paperback edition includes a foreword by Lawrence Lessig. The book was first published in 2005 by Doubleday as Freedom of Expression®: Overzealous Copyright Bozos and Other Enemies of Creativity, and in 2007 by University of Minnesota Press as Freedom of Expression®: Resistance and Repression in the Age of Intellectual Property.

2005 books Non-fiction books Books about creativity Books about freedom of speech Law books
Euler's criterion

In number theory Euler's criterion is a formula for determining whether an integer is a quadratic residue modulo a prime. Precisely, Let p be an odd prime and a an integer coprime to p. Then Euler's criterion can be concisely reformulated using the Legendre symbol: The criterion first appeared in a 1748 paper by Euler.

Modular arithmetic Articles containing proofs Theorems about prime numbers Quadratic residue
Referring expression

A referring expression (RE), in linguistics, is any noun phrase, or surrogate for a noun phrase, whose function in a text (spoken, signed or written on a particular occasion) is "pick out" someone an individual person, place, object, or a set of persons, places, objects, etc. The technical terminology for "pick out" differs a great deal from one school of linguistics to another.

Semantics Pragmatics
Censorship in Turkey

The legal basis for censorship in Turkey generally stem from statutes that limit speech deemed insulting to Turkishness, and expressions of political extremism. Censorship in Turkey is regulated by domestic and international legislation- which takes precedence over domestic law, according to Article 90 of the Constitution (so amended in 2004). Despite the protections presented in article 90, Turkey ranked 138 in the Reporters Without Borders' 2010 Annual Worldwide Press Freedom Index.

Censorship in Turkey
Phase One Media Pro

Phase One Media Pro (formerly Microsoft Expression Media) is a commercial digital asset management cataloging program for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X operating systems. It is the next version of iView MediaPro which Microsoft acquired in June 2006, and sold again in May 2010 to Phase One in Denmark.

Image organizers 2006 software Windows software Mac OS X multimedia software
Lambda expression

Canadian Association for Free Expression

The Canadian Association for Free Expression (CAFE) is a political organization based in Canada that campaigns for free speech. It is often accused of having ties to the racist far-right. Founded by Paul Fromm in 1981, it claims to be committed to the promotion and defence of total freedom of speech and opinion, which it sees as essential to the functioning of Canadian democracy. It began in Ontario, although it has since also been incorporated in Alberta.

White supremacy Canadian far-right political movements
FGED Society

The Functional GEnomics Data (FGED) Society (formerly known as the MGED Society) is a non-profit, volunteer-run international organization of biologists, computer scientists, and data analysts that aims to facilitate biological and biomedical discovery through data integration. The approach of FGED is to promote the sharing of basic research data generated primarily via high-throughput technologies that generate large data sets within the domain of functional genomics.

Bioinformatics organizations International organizations
Microsoft Expression Encoder

Microsoft Expression Encoder (formerly Expression Media Encoder) is a transcoding and non-linear video editing software application for Microsoft Windows. It can create video streams for distribution via Microsoft Silverlight.

Microsoft Expression products Windows-only freeware 2007 software Windows-only shareware
Conspiracy of silence (expression)

The expression conspiracy of silence, or culture of silence, relates to a condition or matter which is known to exist, but by tacit communal unspoken consensus is not talked about or acknowledged. Commonly such matters are considered culturally shameful. Taboo subjects may be indirectly discussed via the use of politically correct code words, or euphemisms.

Censorship Article Feedback 5 Silence Conspiracy
Boolean expression

In computer science, a Boolean expression is an expression in a programming language that produces a Boolean value when evaluated, i.e. one of true or false. A Boolean expression may be composed of a combination of the Boolean constants true or false, Boolean-typed variables, Boolean-valued operators, and Boolean-valued functions.

Operators (programming) Boolean algebra

EllisLab a software development company based in Bend, Oregon, which develops applications written in PHP. The company is privately owned and has to date accepted no venture capital funding of any kind.

Privately held companies based in Oregon Companies based in Bend, Oregon Content management systems Software companies based in Oregon
Expression-oriented programming language

An expression-oriented programming language is a programming language where every (or nearly every) construction is an expression and thus yields a value. The typical exceptions are macro definitions, preprocessor commands, and declarations, which expression-oriented languages often treat as statements rather than expressions. Some expression-oriented languages introduce a void return type to be yielded by expressions that merely cause side-effects.

Programming language classification
Cell-free protein array

Cell-free protein array technology produces protein microarrays by performing in vitro synthesis of the target proteins from their DNA templates. This method of synthesizing protein microarrays overcomes the many obstacles and challenges faced by traditional methods of protein array production that have prevented widespread adoption of protein microarrays in proteomics.

Molecular biology Microarrays
Polynomial expression

In mathematics, and in particular in the field of algebra, a polynomial expression in one or more given entities E1, E2, ... , is any meaningful expression constructed from copies of those entities together with constants, using the operations of addition and multiplication. For each entity E, multiple copies can be used, and it is customary to write the product E×E×...

Polynomials Abstract algebra
Thomas Jefferson Center for the Protection of Free Expression

The Thomas Jefferson Center for the Protection of Free Expression is an independently funded organization associated with the University of Virginia and dedicated to the protection of freedom of speech. Founded in 1989 and headed by former UVA president Robert M.

Non-profit organizations based in Virginia University of Virginia
Template Attribute Language

The Template Attribute Language (TAL) is a templating language used to generate dynamic HTML and XML pages. Its main goal is to simplify the collaboration between programmers and designers. This is achieved by embedding TAL statements inside valid HTML (or XML) tags which can then be worked on using common design tools. TAL was created for Zope but is used in other Python-based projects as well.

Template engines Zope
Ghetto fabulous

Ghetto fabulous is an expression believed to have originated among African Americans living in poor urban areas. It specifically refers to the mentality and lifestyle of some American ghetto inhabitants and vaguely to the mentality and lifestyle of poor African- American urbanites.

Neologisms Hip hop Cultures Social class subcultures
Calculator input methods

There are various ways in which a calculator might interpret key strokes. One can categorize calculators into two main types: 1) single-step or immediate execution calculators and 2) expression or formula calculators. On a formula calculator one types in an expression and then presses 'Enter' to evaluate the expression. There are various systems for typing in an expression: infix, postfix, natural display etc.

Mathematical notation Calculators

In computer programming, M-expressions (or meta-expressions) were intended to be the expressions used to write functions in the Lisp programming language. Data to be manipulated using M-expressions was to be written using S-expressions. M-expressions were used for the original theoretical language in early papers about Lisp, but the first working implementation of Lisp interpreted encodings of M-expressions as S-expressions, and M-expressions were never actually implemented.

Lisp programming language
Microsoft Expression Design

Microsoft Expression Design is Microsoft's commercial professional illustration vector and raster graphic design tool for web images based on Creature House Expression, which was acquired by Microsoft in 2003. It is part of the Microsoft Expression Studio suite. Expression Design is more oriented towards editing XAML and web graphics rather than print graphics and does not incorporate all of the raster image editing features of the original Creature House Expression.

Microsoft Expression products Vector graphics editors
Brass monkey (colloquial expression)

The phrase "cold enough to freeze the balls off (or on) a brass monkey" is a colloquial expression used by some English speakers. The reference to the testes (as the term balls is commonly understood to mean) of the brass monkey appears to be a 20th century variant on the expression, prefigured by a range of references to other body parts, especially the nose and tail.

Nautical slang
Norwegian Academy of Literature and Freedom of Expression

The Norwegian Academy of Literature and Freedom of Expression (Det Norske Akademi for Litteratur og Ytringsfrihet) is a Norwegian institution, founded in 2003, and also called Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson-Akademiet. Its objective is to promote understanding of cultures other than our own and for literary free speech. The membership includes Norwegian and foreign students, authors, politicians and journalists. The organization's 2005 President is Knut Ødegård.

Article Feedback 5 Free expression awards Norwegian literary awards Awards established in 2003
Expression Crew

Expression crew is a South Korean b-boying crew that is famous for winning Battle of the Year 2002, making it the first ever Korean crew to win the title. The crew is also famous for its "Marionette" performance, a show it used to tour around the world performing.

South Korean breakdancing groups
Label-free quantification

Label-free quantification is a method in mass spectrometry that aims to determine the differential expression level of proteins in two or more biological samples. Unlike other methods for protein quantification, label-free quantification does not use a stable isotope containing compound to chemically bind to and thus label the protein.

Mass spectrometry
Phatic expression

In linguistics, a phatic expression is one whose only function is to perform a social task, as opposed to conveying information.

Pragmatics Anthropology
Have a nice day

Have a nice day is a commonly spoken valediction, typically uttered by service employees to customers at the end of a transaction, particularly in Israel and the United States. Its repetitious and dutifully polite usage has resulted in the phrase developing a cultural connotation among some listeners as representing impersonality, lack of interest, passive–aggressive behavior, or sarcasm. The phrase is generally not used in Europe.

Parting phrases English phrases American culture
Talk to the hand

"Talk to the hand" (or "tell it to the hand") is an English language slang phrase associated with the 1990s. It originated as a contemptuous way of saying one doesn't want to hear what the person being addressed is saying. It is often elongated to a phrase such as "Talk to the hand, because the ear's not listening". A variant is "talk to the hand because the face don't understand!"

Hand gestures Slang expressions
American Booksellers Foundation for Free Expression

Founded in 1990 by the American Booksellers Association, the American Booksellers Foundation for Free Expression (ABFFE) is a non-profit organization whose mission is to protect and promote free speech in the USA. ABFFE advises individuals who oppose book challenges and bans on both a national level and in local communities across the country.

Non-profit organizations based in the United States
No worries

No worries is an Australian English expression, meaning "do not worry about that", "that's alright", or "sure thing". It is similar to the American English no problem. The phrase is widely used in Australian speech and represents a feeling of friendliness, good humour, optimism and "mateship" in Australian culture. The phrase has been referred to as the national motto of Australia and has influenced a similar phrase used in the Tok Pisin language in Papua New Guinea.

Australian English English phrases Australian culture Australian slang
Creature House Expression

Creature House Expression was a vector graphics editor initially developed by Creature House in Hong Kong, then Ray Dream, then Fractal Design Corporation and later MetaCreations as a companion to then-Fractal Design/MetaCreations Painter. At the time, Creature House was an independent Hong Kong software studio. Expression tried to duplicate Painter's UI as close as possible and was available for Mac OS and Windows.

Microsoft Expression products Vector graphics editors Freeware
Repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE) element

The repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE) element is an RNA element found in the 5' UTR of some heat shock protein's mRNAs. The ROSE element is an RNA thermometer that negatively regulates heat shock gene expression. The secondary structure is thought to be altered by temperature, thus it is an RNA thermometer. This structure blocks access to the ribosome binding site at normal temperatures.

Cis-regulatory RNA elements
Reduction strategy

In code optimization during the translation of computer programs into an executable form, and in mathematical reduction generally, a reduction strategy for a term rewriting system determines which reducible subterms (or reducible expressions, redexes) should be reduced (contracted) within a term; it may be the case that a term may contain multiple redexes which are disjoint from one another and that choosing to contract one redex before another may have no influence on the resulting reduced form of the term, or that the redexes in a term do overlap and that choosing to contract one of the overlapping redexes over the other may result in a different reduced form of the term.

Rewriting systems
Ram press (food)

A ram press is a device or machine commonly used to press items with a mechanical ram, such as with a plunger, piston, force pump, or hydraulic ram. In food preparation, there are various kinds of ram presses: The fruit ram press and cider ram press are both types of fruit presses that extract the juices out of the fruit through pressure. The second makes apple cider. An oil seed ram press is also known as an oil ram press and it extracts the oil out of oil seeds.

Food technology
Expression (album)

Expression is an album by jazz saxophonist John Coltrane. The title track was Coltrane's last studio recording; the rest of the album was recorded at about the same time as Interstellar Space. "To Be" features Coltrane on flute, the only recording he made on the instrument for an entire track. As for the remainder, Coltrane's tenor seems to have acquired a denser, wider sound while retaining the free form of the late years.

Albums produced by Bob Thiele Impulse! Records albums Albums published posthumously John Coltrane albums 1967 albums
Self-expression values

Self-expression values are part of a core value dimension in the modernization process. Self-expression is a cluster of values that include social toleration, life satisfaction, public expression and an aspiration to liberty. Ronald Inglehart, the University of Michigan professor who developed the theory of post-materialism, has worked extensively with this concept.

Cultural studies Political science
Holy cow (expression)

"Holy cow!" (and similar) is an exclamation of surprise used mostly in American and Canadian English. From the Dictionary of American Slang (1960): “ "Holy Buckets!" Equiv. to "Holy cats!" or "Holy Mike!" both being euphemisms for "Holy Christ!". This term is considered to be very popular among teenagers, and most teens claim it is definitely a very popular phrase.

English idioms Catchphrases
Expression Language

Expression Language (EL) is a scripting language which allows access to Java components through JSP. Since JSP 2.0, it has been used inside JSP tags to separate Java code from JSP, and to allow easier access to Java components (than in Java code). Evolution of EL occurred to make scripting easier for web-content designers who have little or practically no knowledge of the core Java Language. This scripting language makes JSP a scripting language in the true sense.

Scripting languages
The Human Expression

The Human Expression is a psychedelic rock band from Los Angeles that released three well-regarded singles and made additional demo recordings between 1966 and 1967.

American psychedelic rock music groups Garage rock groups Musical groups established in 1966 Musical groups from California
Expression quantitative trait loci

Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) are genomic loci that regulate expression levels of mRNAs or proteins. Expression traits differ from most other classical complex traits in one important respect—the measured mRNA or protein trait almost always is the product of a single gene with a specific chromosomal location. eQTLs that map to the approximate location of their gene-of-origin are referred to as cis eQTLs.

Genetics Statistical genetics Classical genetics
Comparison of regular expression engines

Software comparisons Pattern matching Regular expressions
Queer Student Cultural Center

The Queer Student Cultural Center is the current incarnation of the coming out, gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, genderqueer, intersex, and allied communities organization of the University of Minnesota campuses that has been active since May 1969 (under various names).. This pre-stonewall history makes it the oldest collegiate-run student organization for gays and lesbians in the United States.

Intersex organizations LGBT organizations in the United States University of Minnesota
Glossary of gene expression terms

See also: gene expression, List of Glossaries, List of Natural Sciences Glossaries Contents: Top   0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [edit] A Activator - protein that binds to an enhancer (or activator binding region) and activates transcription from nearby promoter. A-DNA - a form of DNA found at low relative humidity, with 11 bp per helical turn. This form assumed in solution by RNA-DNA hybrid.

Genetics Glossaries of science
OAS Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression

The office of the Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression of the Organization of American States (OAS) was established by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) in 1997 to monitor OAS member states' compliance with the American Convention on Human Rights in the area of freedom of expression.

Organization of American States Intergovernmental human rights organizations Human rights in Latin America Freedom of expression

The regular expression denial of service (ReDoS) is a denial-of-service attack, that exploits the fact that most regular expression implementations may reach extreme situations that cause them to work very slowly (exponentially related to input size). An attacker can then cause a program using a regular expression to enter these extreme situations and then hang for a very long time.

Denial-of-service attacks Pattern matching Regular expressions
Mathematics and art

Mathematics and art have a long historical relationship. The ancient Egyptians and ancient Greeks knew about the golden ratio, regarded as an aesthetically pleasing ratio, and incorporated it into the design of monuments including the Great Pyramid, the Parthenon, the Colosseum. There are many examples of artists who have been inspired by mathematics and studied mathematics as a means of complementing their works.

Art history Mathematics and culture Visual arts
Cap analysis gene expression

Cap analysis gene expression (CAGE) is a technique used in molecular biology to produce a snapshot of the 5' end of the messenger RNA population in a biological sample. The small fragments (usually 20-21 nucleotides long) from the very beginnings of mRNAs (5' ends of capped transcripts) are extracted, reverse-transcribed to DNA, PCR amplified and sequenced. CAGE was first published by Hayashizaki and co-workers in 2003. CAGE has been extensively used within the FANTOM research projects.

Molecular biology Gene expression
MicroArray and Gene Expression

The MicroArray and Gene Expression (MAGE) group is a project of the FGED Society to develop a standard for the representation of gene expression data from microarrays to facilitate the exchange of information between different data systems. MAGE has in the past worked with the OMG, which provided a framework for developing, ratifying, and publishing the MAGE-based standards documents.

Microarrays Standards organizations
My bad

"My bad" is an American idiom that was made popular by Manute Bol although it was also used before his arrival in the USA. It usually means "my fault", "my mistake", "I apologize" or "mea culpa". It gained popularity with urban players of streetball and then spread into mainstream popularity. Its use in the 1995 film Clueless greatly increased the phrase's popularity.

English idioms

Hypomimia, a medical sign, is a reduced degree of facial expression. It can be caused by motor impairment, as in Parkinson's disease, or by other causes, like psychological or psychiatric factors (for example, if a patient actually doesn't feel emotions, and thus doesn't show any expression).

Facial expressions Medical signs Parkinson's disease
Musical expression

Musical expression is the art of playing music with communication. The elements of music that comprise expression include dynamic indications, forte or piano, phrasing, differing qualities of touch and articulation, color, intensity, energy and excitement all at the service of the composer's intention as best perceived by the performer.

Music performance Philosophy of music
Predicative expression

A predicative expression (or just predicative) is (part of) a clause predicate. The term is used more specifically to denote expressions that typically follow a copula, e.g. be, seem, appear, or that appear as a second complement of a certain type of verb, e. g call, make, name, etc. The most frequently acknowledged types of predicative expressions are predicative adjectives (also predicate adjectives) and predicative nominals (also predicate nominals).

Syntactic entities
Fresh expression

Fresh expressions are any of over a thousand new church groups that have developed within the Church of England since 1990 in areas where traditional expressions of church have become largely irrelevant to much of the population.

Christian missionary societies Church of England societies and organisations Methodism Church of England Anglicanism
Freedom of expression in India

The Constitution of India contains the right to freedom, given in articles 19, 20, 21 and 22, with the view of guaranteeing individual rights that were considered vital by the framers of the constitution. The right to freedom in Article 19 guarantees the Freedom of speech and expression, as one of following six freedoms:

Freedom of expression in India Indian law
Therapeutic gene modulation

Therapeutic gene modulation refers the practice of altering the expression of a gene at one of various stages, with a view to alleviate some form of ailment. It differs from gene therapy in that gene modulation seeks to alter the expression of an endogenous gene (perhaps through the introduction of a gene encoding a novel modulatory protein) whereas gene therapy concerns the introduction of a gene whose product aids the recipient directly.

Medical genetics Applied genetics
Applicative programming language

In the classification of programming languages, an applicative programming language is designed to support the development of programs as giving the result of a function of the combined variables. Successive functional transformations are applied to data to arrive at the result. Such a language, with program control and total state kept in the background, may also be known as a functional language, in a rather loose sense of the term. Lisp and ML are applicative programming languages.

Applicative computing systems Programming language classification
Free Expression Tunnel

The Free Expression Tunnel is the longest, widest, and most heavily used pedestrian tunnel under the railroad tracks at North Carolina State University in Raleigh, North Carolina (also goes under Yarbrough Drive). The special aspect of the tunnel is that anyone is permitted to decorate its walls, ceiling, and floor. The tunnel connects NCSU's North Campus with the Central Campus and provides the most direct route from the The Brickyard to the Central Campus residence halls.

North Carolina State University
The mother of parliaments (expression)

The mother of parliaments is an expression coined by the British politician and reformer John Bright in a speech at Birmingham on 18 January 1865. It was a reference to England. His actual words were: England is the mother of parliaments. This was reported in The Times of the following day. The expression is often misapplied to the Parliament of the United Kingdom because of the adoption of the Westminster Model of Parliamentary Democracy by many countries of the former Empire.

Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine

Rights Expression Language

A Rights Expression Language or REL is a machine-processable language used for Digital Rights Management. Most REL are expressible in XML, but this is not a requirement and any format could be used. Some use RDF and RDF Schema. Although RELs may be processed directly, they will most commonly be encountered when embedded as metadata within other documents, such as eBooks, MP3 audio or downloaded video.

Metadata Digital rights management
Military expression

Military expression is an area of military law pertaining to the United States military that relates to the free speech rights of its service members.

Military sociology First Amendment to the United States Constitution Freedom of expression United States military law
Gene expression profiling in cancer

Cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and proliferation. For cancer to develop, genes regulating cell growth and differentiation must be altered; these mutations are then maintained through subsequent cell divisions and are thus present in all cancerous cells. Gene expression profiling is a technique used in molecular biology to query the expression of thousands of genes simultaneously.

Cancer research
Advanced Boolean Expression Language

The Advanced Boolean Expression Language (ABEL) is a Hardware description language and an associated set of design tools for programming PLDs. It was created in 1983 by Data I/O Corporation, in Redmond, Washington. ABEL includes both concurrent equation and truth table logic formats as well as a sequential state machine description format. A preprocessor with syntax loosely based on DEC's Macro-11 is also included.

Hardware description languages
Lactase persistence

Lactase persistence is the continued activity of the enzyme lactase in adulthood. Since lactase's only function is the digestion of lactose in milk, in most mammals species the activity of the enzyme is dramatically reduced after weaning. However in some human populations lactase persistence has recently evolved as an adaptation to the consumption of non-human milk and dairy products beyond infancy.

Digestive system
Infinite expression (mathematics)

In mathematics, an infinite expression is an expression in which some operators take an infinite number of arguments, or in which the nesting of the operators continues to an infinite depth. A generic concept for infinite expression can lead to ill-defined or self-inconsistent constructions (much like a set of all sets), but there are several instances of infinite expressions that are well defined.

Mathematical analysis Abstract algebra
Expression cloning

Expression cloning is a technique in DNA cloning that uses expression vectors to generate a library of clones, with each clone expressing one protein. This expression library is then screened for the property of interest and clones of interest recovered for further analysis. An example would be using an expression library to isolate genes that could confer antibiotic resistance.

Molecular genetics
Available expression

In the field of compiler optimizations, available expressions is an analysis algorithm that determines for each point in the program the set of expressions that need not be recomputed. Those expressions are said to be available at such a point. To be available on a program point, the operands of the expression should not be modified on any path from the occurrence of that expression to the program point. The analysis is an example of a forward data flow analysis problem.

Compiler optimizations
Expression templates

Expression templates is a C++ template metaprogramming technique in which templates are used to represent part of an expression. Typically, the template itself represents a particular type of operation, while the parameters represent the operands to which the operation applies. The expression template can then be evaluated at a later time, or passed to a function. The technique was proposed by Todd Veldhuizen in his June 1995 article in the C++ Report.

Computer programming C++
Expression Studio

Yeast expression platform

Yeasts can be used to produce proteins and sugars. Yeasts differ in productivity and with respect to their capabilities to secrete, to process and to modify proteins. The different 'platforms' of types of yeast make them better suited for different cooking and industrial applications.

Expression cassette

An expression cassette is a part of a vector DNA used for cloning and transformation. In each successful transformation, the expression cassette directs the cell's machinery to make RNA and protein. Some expression cassettes are designed for modular cloning of protein-encoding sequences so that the same cassette can easily be altered to make different proteins. Is made up of one or more genes and the sequences controlling their expression.


Mabuhay is a Tagalog word used to exclaim "long live". Comparable to the Romance language expression “Vive, Viva”, the salute associated with this exclamation; in which both arms are raised above the head in unison three times and is also similar to that used in the Japanese exclamation Banzai. The expression is most often used at toasts (cheers!) during gatherings and parties, at rallies, political conferences, or for praising notable individuals.

Filipino language Greetings Tagalog words and phrases
Disorder of written expression

Disorder of written expression is a type of learning disability in which a person’s writing ability falls substantially below normally expected range based on the individual’s age, educational background, and measured intelligence. Poor writing skills must interfere significantly with academic progress or daily activities that involves written expression (spelling, grammar, handwriting, punctuation, word usage, etc.).

Specific developmental disorders
AlloMap molecular expression testing

AlloMap molecular expression testing, developed and commercialized by XDx, is a gene expression profiling test to identify heart transplant recipients with a low probability of one type of transplant rejection. The test is performed on a blood sample, providing a non-invasive test to help manage the care of patients post transplant. Prior to the availability of this test, the primary method for managing heart transplant rejection was the invasive technique of endomyocardial biopsy.

Blood tests Genomics DNA
Spatiotemporal gene expression

Spatiotemporal gene expression is the activation of genes within specific tissues of an organism at specific times during development. Gene activation patterns vary widely in complexity. Some are straightforward and static, such as the pattern of tubulin, which is expressed in all cells at all times in life. Some, on the other hand, are extraordinarily intricate and difficult to predict and model, with expression fluctuating wildly from minute to minute or from cell to cell.

Gene expression Molecular genetics
Euler's pump and turbine equation

The Euler’s pump and turbine equations are most fundamental equations in the field of turbo-machinery. These equations govern the power, efficiencies and other factors that contribute in the design of Turbo-machines thus making them very important. With the help of these equations the head developed by a pump and the head utilised by a turbine can be easily determined. As the name suggests these equations were formulated by Leonhard Euler in the eighteenth century.

Compressors Turbines Fluid dynamics Fans Pumps
Microsoft Expression


EMAGE (e-Mouse Atlas of Gene Expression) is an online biological database of gene expression data in the developing mouse embryo. The data held in EMAGE is spatially annotated to a framework of 3D mouse embryo models produced by EMAP (e-Mouse Atlas Project). These spatial annotations allow users to query EMAGE by spatial pattern as well as by gene name, anatomy term or Gene Ontology (GO) term.

Biological databases Bioinformatics
Blank expression

A blank expression, also known as poker face is a facial expression characterized by the neutral position of facial features and implies a lack of strong emotion. It may be caused by a lack of emotion, boredom, slight confusion (such as when someone refers to something which the listener does not understand) a deliberate attempt to disguise one's emotions, such as when playing poker giving rise to popular term, poker-faced, or a sign of depression.

Facial expressions Poker gameplay and terminology
Uh-oh (expression)

Uh-oh is a ubiquitous interjection or expression of dismay in the English language, usually said in anticipation of something bad about to happen, with the sly admittance of guilt that one may have caused something bad to happen, or perceiving that something bad has already happened. The speaker often gives vent to the expression immediately upon learning or perceiving of something that presages disaster.

Allotopic expression

Allotopic expression (AE) refers to expression from the nuclear genome of genes that normally are expressed only from the mitochondrial genome. Biomedically engineered AE has been suggested as a possible future tool in gene therapy of certain mitochondria-related diseases (de Grey 2000), however this view is controversial (Oca-Cossio et al. 2003).

Metric engine (American expression)

A metric engine is an American expression which refers to an internal combustion engine, often for automobiles, whose underlying engineering design is based on a metric system of units, particularly SI. As American industry converted from traditional units to SI in the late 20th century, the automotive industry responded by transitioning its auto and engine designs to be "metric" rather than "English".

Automobile engines Metrication in the United States
Free Expression Policy Project

Gene expression programming

Gene Expression Programming (GEP) is an evolutionary algorithm that evolves populations of computer programs in order to solve a user-defined problem. GEP has similarities, but is distinct from, the evolutionary computational method of genetic programming.

Genetics Evolutionary algorithms Genetic programming
Protein K (gene expression)

Protein K is a human protein found in the cell nucleus that binds to pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) as a component of heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein particles. The simian homolog is known as protein H16. Both proteins bind to single-stranded DNA as well as to RNA and can stimulate the activity of RNA polymerase II, the protein responsible for most gene transcription.

Foundation for Freedom of Expression

The Foundation for Freedom of Expression is a private trust to help protect Ayaan Hirsi Ali as well as other dissidents in the Muslim world by way of international charitable donations. U.S. law does not allow tax-deductible charitable contributions to be directed toward a single individual, such as the Ayaan Hirsi Ali Security Trust.

Philanthropic organizations based in the United States
UN Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Opinion and Expression

Heterologous expression

Heterologous expression is to express a gene or part of a gene in a host organism, which does not naturally have this gene or gene fragment. This is mainly done in recombinant DNA technology. See also

American Renaissance (literature)

In American literature, the American Renaissance was a period during which many of the literary works most widely considered American masterpieces were produced. The period is generally defined as the mid-19th century but especially the years roughly from 1850 to 1855.

Cultural history of the United States American literature Literary criticism
Referring expression generation

Referring expression generation is a subtask of Natural language generation (NLG), which involves creating referring expressions (noun phrases) that identify specific entities to the reader. A variety of algorithms have been developed in the NLG community to generate different types of referring expressions.

Natural language processing Computational linguistics
American Booksellers Foundation for Free Expression v. Strickland

American Booksellers Foundation for Free Expression v. Strickland, 560 F.3d 443 (6th Cir. 2009), is a decision of the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals involving a constitutional challenge—both facially and as-applied to internet communications—to an Ohio statute prohibiting the dissemination or display to juveniles of certain sexually-explicit materials or performances.

United States obscenity case law Internet censorship in the United States United States Internet case law United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit cases 2009 in United States case law
Threshold expression

Threshold expression is a phenomenon in which phenotypic expression of a mitochondrial disease within an organ system occurs when the severity of the mutation, relative number of mutant mtDNA, and reliance of the organ system on oxidative phosphorylation combine in such a way that ATP production of the tissue falls below the level required by the tissue. The phenotype may be expressed even if the percentage of mutant mtDNA is below 50% if the mutation is severe enough.

DNA Mitochondrial diseases
Integral expression

Facial Emotion Expression Lab

The Facial Expression Emotion Lab was founded by Armindo Freitas-Magalhães in 2003 and is a unit of the College of Health Sciences at the Universidade Fernando Pessoa, Porto, Portugal. The mission of the lab is to create new scientific knowledge about the human emotions and their forms of social expression. To this end, the lab has created IT applications and interfaces.

Facial expressions Laboratories Research institutes in Portugal
Multiword expression

A multiword expression (MWE) is a lexeme made up of a sequence of two or more lexemes that has properties that are not predictable from the properties of the individual lexemes or their normal mode of combination. For a shorter definition, MWEs can be described as "idiosyncratic interpretations that cross word boundaries (or spaces)". . A multiword expression can be a compound, a fragment of a sentence, or a sentence. The group of lexemes which makup up a MWE can be continuous or discontinuous.

Conditional expression

Mormon Expression

Mormon Expression is a weekly podcast created by John Larsen dealing with issues of Mormon faith, culture, doctrine and history. The podcast includes a mixed format of interviews and panel discussions. The overall tone of the podcast is somewhat critical of the mainline LDS Church, but also includes faithful perspectives from believing Mormons.

Audio podcasts Blogs about Mormons and Mormonism Mormon studies
The Expression

The Expression were an Australian synthpop band formed in Sydney in 1981 and disbanded in 1985. Their best known single, "With Closed Eyes", was released in 1983 on Mushroom Records and peaked into the top thirty on the Kent Music Report.

Australian New Wave musical groups Musical groups established in 1981 New South Wales musical groups Musical groups disestablished in 1985
Expression Direkt

Expression Direkt is a French rap group from Mantes la Jolie one of the most violent suburbs of Paris. A famous song of theirs is "Mon esprit part en couiIIe". (1995/96) The original version (Which you can hear in a scene in La Haine)is different from the MCM clip which you can also find around.

French hip hop groups
Subtle expression

Subtle Expressions occur when a person’s emotional response to a situation, to another person or to the environment around them is of low intensity. They also occur when a person is just starting to feel an emotion. Unlike microexpressions, subtle expressions are not associated with the length of time that they are on the face, but rather with the intensity of the emotion that is occurring. As their name suggests, subtle expressions are very subtle.

Facial expressions Emotion Nonverbal communication
Mechanisms of Development

Mechanisms of Development is a peer-reviewed scientific journal focusing on all aspects of developmental biology. It is the official journal of the International Society of Developmental Biologists and is published by Elsevier Ireland. The journal was established as Cell Differentiation in 1972 and was renamed Cell Differentiation and Development in 1988. It acquired its current name in December 1990. The journal is edited by D. Wilkinson.

Elsevier academic journals Publications established in 1972 English-language journals Developmental biology journals Monthly journals
Human rights in the Netherlands

The human rights of the Netherlands are codified in the Dutch constitution. Together with other European states, the Netherlands is often at or near the head in international civil liberties and political rights rankings.

Human rights in the Netherlands
Anal sac expression

When expressing a pet's anal sac, a groomer or veterinarian should examine the contents for signs of impacted feces,or infection. Anal gland fluid is normally yellow to tan in color and watery in consistency. Impacted anal gland material is usually brown or gray and thick. The presence of blood or pus indicates infection.

Veterinary procedures
Veterans' Memorials, Boy Scouts, Public Seals, and Other Public Expressions of Religion Protection Act of 2006

The Veterans' Memorials, Boy Scouts, Public Seals, and Other Public Expressions of Religion Protection Act of 2006 (H.R. 2679, S. 3696, previously the Public Expression of Religion Act of 2005), was a bill passed by the United States House of Representatives on September 26, 2006 by a vote of 244 to 173. It was not voted upon by the Senate. Its intent was two-fold.

Church and state law Military veterans' affairs in the United States 2006 in religion Religion in the United States United States proposed federal legislation Separation of church and state 2006 in law
Unified Expression Language

The Java Unified Expression Language is a special purpose programming language mostly used in Java web applications for embedding expressions into web pages. The Java specification writers and expert groups of the Java web-tier technologies have worked on a unified expression language which is now part of the JSP 2.1 specification (JSR-245).

Java programming language
List of regular expression software

The following is a list of software applications that use regular expressions. In some cases, only later versions of the applications use regular expressions.

Pattern matching Lists of software
Freedom of speech in the People's Republic of China

Kodos Python Regular Expression Debugger

Kodos is a FLOSS regular expression debugger written in Python, developed by Phil Schwartz. Because Python conforms to the Perl Compatible Regular Expressions standard for its regular expressions, Kodos can be used for debugging regular expressions for any other language that conforms.

Free software programmed in Python
Polish parliament (expression)

Polish parliament (Swedish and Norwegian Polsk riksdag, Danish Polsk rigsdag, German Polnischer Reichstag) is an expression referring to the historical Polish parliaments. It implies chaos and general disorder, and that no real decision can be reached during sessions. The origin is that any single member of the Polish parliament during the 17th and 18th century had an absolute veto, so that complete consensus—which could be attained only with great difficulty—was required for every issue.

Phrases Anti-Polish sentiment
A New Expression of the Earth

A New Expression of the Earth: the experiences of the European Ceramics Work Centre was the name of an international exhibition of contemporary art held at the Luis Seoane Foundation, A Coruña, Spain, 11 December 1997 – 31 January 1998.

Art exhibitions A Coruña 1997 in art Arts in Spain
Expression (disambiguation)

Expression library

In an Expression of the Inexpressible

In an Expression of the Inexpressible is the fourth studio album by Blonde Redhead, released in 1998.

1998 albums Blonde Redhead albums Touch and Go Records albums
Russian sayings

Russian sayings give an insight into many aspects of Russian history, culture, and national character. The Russian language is replete with many hundreds of proverbs and sayings . These were already tabulated by the seventeenth century, and collected and studied in the nineteenth and twentieth, with the folk-tales being an especially fertile source. Quite a few sayings are of literary origin.

Russian language
Path expression

In query languages, path expressions identify an object by describing how to navigate to it in some graph of objects. For example, the path expression might refer the city of residence of someone's manager. Path expressions have been extended to support regular expression-like flexibility. XPath is an example of a path expression language. In concurrency control, path expressions are a mechanism for expressing permitted sequences of execution.

Concurrency control Programming constructs
Chinese expression

Expression problem

The Expression Problem is a term used in discussing strengths and weaknesses of various programming paradigms and programming languages. The expression problem can be treated as a use case in programming language design. Philip Wadler coined the term: The Expression Problem is a new name for an old problem.

Programming language design
Proverbial expression

Structural Biochemistry/ Kiss Gene Expression

Kisspeptins are a group of proteins that come from precursors that are approximately 145 amino acids in length that get reduced to 54 and then finally about 10, 13, or 14 amino acid carboxyl terminals and are encoded by the Kiss 1 gene and are thought to be involved in the initiation of puberty by stimulating the release of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).

Alliance for Freedom of Expression in Cambodia

The Alliance for Freedom of Expression in Cambodia (AFEC) is an alliance of Cambodian non-governmental organizations working to promote in Cambodia: freedom of expression; freedom of information; and freedom of assembly. The AFEC logo is a yellow ribbon in an "f" shape, signifying freedom. AFEC is coordinated by the Cambodian Center for Human Rights (CCHR) and led by the CCHR's President, Ou Virak.

Human rights in Cambodia
Performative consumption

Performative consumption or conspicuous expression are terms used to describe the act of doing something for the primary purpose of having someone see you do it. This is based off the concepts of conspicuous consumption, conspicuous leisure, and the performative turn. This is similar to conspicuous consumption except that it does not involve buying anything. Additionally, rather than showing off wealth, conspicuous expression is used to show off social status.

Streams of Expression

Streams of Expression is the 20th album by Joe Lovano to be released on Blue Note Records. It was released in 2006 and features a five-part "Streams of Expression Suite," three-part "Birth of the Cool Suite," and three other shorter works. The "Birth of the Cool Suite" was conducted by Gunther Schuller and utilizes melodic themes inspired by Miles Davis' work from his 1948 and 1950 nonet. The album also features George Garzone, Ralph Lalama, Gary Smulyan, and Tim Hagans.

Blue Note Records albums Joe Lovano albums 2006 albums
Oldsmobile Expression

The Oldsmobile Expression was a 1990 concept vehicle. The Expression was a 4-door wagon that featured fiberglass exterior panels and 6 passenger (2+2+2) seating. Among other features showcased were: rain-sensing windshield wipers, in-car vacuum cleaner, TV/VCR with a Nintendo system, and unique four-wheel steering.

Oldsmobile concept vehicles
Mouse gene expression database

The Gene Expression Database is a community resource of mouse developmental expression information.

Gene expression Mice Biological databases
Fixed expression

A fixed expression in English is a standard form of expression that has taken on a more specific meaning than the expression itself. It is different from a proverb in that it is used as a part of a sentence, and is the standard way of expressing a concept or idea. Examples include: all of a sudden come into mind fall in line I can assure you so to speak surf the web trinomials (3-word fixed expressions); e.g. "lights, camera, action", "signed, sealed, delivered".

Parts of speech
Expression index

An expression index is a database index that is built on a generic expression, rather than on a list of columns. This allows indexes to be defined for common query conditions that depend on data in a table, but are not actually stored in that table. A common use for an expression index is to support case-insensitive searching or constraints.

PostgreSQL Database management systems
Creative Commons Rights Expression Language

Creative Commons Rights Expression Language is a proposed Rights Expression Language (REL) for descriptive metadata to be appended to media that is licensed under any of the Creative Commons licenses. According to the draft submitted to the W3C, it is to come in the forms of RDFa for (x)HTML pages and XMP for standalone media.

Metadata Creative Commons DRM standards
Haemolysin expression modulating protein family

In molecular biology, the haemolysin expression modulating protein family is a family of proteins. This family consists of haemolysin expression modulating protein (Hha) from Escherichia coli and its enterobacterial homologues, such as YmoA from Yersinia enterocolitica, and RmoA encoded on the R100 plasmid. These proteins act as modulators of bacterial gene expression.

Protein families
Idea–expression divide

The idea–expression divide or idea–expression dichotomy limits the scope of copyright protection by differentiating an idea from the expression or manifestation of that idea. The case of Baker v. Selden was the first U.S. Supreme Court case to fully explain this doctrine, holding that exclusive rights to the "useful art" (in this case bookkeeping) described in a book was only available by patent; the description itself was protectable by copyright. In Harper & Row Publishers, Inc. v.

Legal doctrines and principles Dichotomies Intellectual property law
Freedom of expression (disambiguation)

Freedom of expression can refer to:

Binary expression tree

A binary expression tree is a specific application of a binary tree to evaluate certain expressions. Two common types of expressions that a binary expression tree can represent are algebraic and boolean. These trees can represent expressions that contain both unary and binary operators. In general, expression trees are special kind of binary trees. Binary tree is a tree in which all nodes contain zero, one or two children.

Binary trees
Gello Expression Language

The GELLO Expression Language was started in 2001 and introduced in 2002; in 2005, GELLO was adopted as an international standard by HL7 International and ANSI for a decision support language. GELLO Release 2 was completed and approved by ANSI in June 2010. The GELLO specifications have been developed in coordination with the HL7 Clinical Decision Support TC (CDSTC) GELLO is a class-based object-oriented programming language and a relative of the Object Constraint Language (OCL).

Object-oriented programming languages
Ekh (expression)

Ekh is a spoken interjection in Russian and certain other Slavic languages. Ekh-ma (Эх-ма) is closely related. It is typically spoken by itself or at the beginning of a sentence, and can be used to express wonder, feeling sorry for something, reproach, pride at a just-accomplished feat, and other strong feelings.

Russian words and phrases Interjections
Expression (song)

"Expression" is the lead single released from Salt-n-Pepa's second album, Blacks' Magic. The song was both written and produced by member Cheryl "Salt" James. The song became the groups second single to reach the top 40 in the US, peaking at number 28 on the Billboard Hot 100 while also topping the Hot Rap Singles chart at number one, becoming their first song to do so.

Salt-n-Pepa songs Billboard Rap Songs number-one singles 1989 singles Singles certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America
Manifest expression

A manifest expression is a programming language construct that a compiler can analyse to deduce which values it can take without having to execute the program. This information can enable compiler optimizations, in particular loop nest optimization, and parallelization through data dependency analysis. An expression is called manifest if it is computed only from outer loop counters and constants (a more formal definition is given below).

Compiler optimizations Compiler construction
Relief A Quarterly Christian Expression

Relief: A Quarterly Christian Expression is a print on demand (POD) literary journal publishing poetry, fiction, and creative nonfiction. Relief is run and distributed through ccPublishing, a nonprofit independent small press not affiliated with the Christian Booksellers Association (CBA) or the Evangelical Christian Publishers Association (ECPA). Relief strives to bridge the gap between conservative Christian writing and secular writing.

Literary magazines
Gender Expression Non-Discrimination Act

The Gender Expression Non-Discrimination Act (GENDA) is a proposed New York law which prohibits discrimination of any kind by public or private institutions on the basis of gender expression or identity. It was first introduced into the Assembly in 2008 and has repeatedly been passed five times in that chamber while failing to pass in the State Senate. It is promoted as a priority of Empire State Pride Agenda, which previously promoted the SONDA law, which was enacted into law in 2003.

LGBT rights in New York Proposed laws of the United States Transgender rights
CKB (gene) creatine kinase, ectopic expression 1

Crunch time (expression)

Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression

Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression is a quarterly scientific journal published by Begell House publishing reviews on topics related to gene regulation, organization, and structure within contexts of biological control and diagnosis/treatment of disease. According to the Journal Citation Reports, its 2009 impact factor is 2.949. The editors-in-chief are Gary S. Stein, Janet L. Stein, and Jane B. Lian.

Genetics journals English-language journals Publications established in 1991 Begell House academic journals Quarterly journals
Wellcome Trust Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression

The Wellcome Trust Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, located within the University of Dundee, pioneers new approaches in the field of gene expression and chromosome biology. Previously part of the Dundee Biocentre and receiving significant Wellcome Trust funding from 1995 onwards, it was awarded Wellcome Trust Centre status in 2008. Professor Angus Lamond is the Centre’s Director.

Gene expression Science and technology in the United Kingdom University of Dundee Wellcome Trust

X-expressions are the unification of S-expressions found in the Lisp programming language with XML. X-expressions unify notions of computation with data sharing.


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